Sunday, November 27, 2011

Saturday, November 26, 2011

Design of House

When you build a new house, you have to think the design of the house.Check it out Design of House thumbnail 1 summary
When you build a new house, you have to think the design of the house.Check it out

Design of House

Definition of Register

Variation of language can be seen from its user and its use with the characteristics such as social-class membership, regional, origin, ... thumbnail 1 summary

Variation of language can be seen from its user and its use with the characteristics such as social-class membership, regional, origin, age, and sex. A useful term in connection with this characteristic is dialect. While the term dialect is convenient to refer to variation according to user, register can be used to refer to variation according to use or sometimes also known as style (Leech et all, 1982: 9).
Similarly, Sari (1988: 149) point out that the term register has been applied to varieties that is set apart from others by the social circumstances of their use.
The concept of register is typically concerned with variations in language conditioned by uses rather than users and involves consideration of the situation or context of use, the purpose, subject-matter, and content of the message, and the relationship between the participants" (Romaine,  1994:20). Register is thus a product of the context of speech. Differences in registers consist solely of differences in vocabulary. In summary, Registers function to reflect the relationships which exist between speakers. Additionally, the register used in conversation (especially when meeting people) communicates the assumptions that speakers make about each other and the types of relationships which are sought and/or established in communication. It is concerned with variation in language conditioned by uses rather than users and consideration of the situation or context of use
In linguistics, a register is a subset of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. For example, an English speaker may adhere more closely to prescribed grammar, pronounce words ending in -ing with a velar nasal (e.g. "walking", not "walkin'") and refrain from using the word "ain't" when speaking in a formal setting, but the same person could violate all of these prescriptions in an informal setting.
The term was first used by the linguist Thomas Bertram Reid in 1956, and brought into general currency in the 1960s by a group of linguists who wanted to distinguish between variations in language according to the user (defined by variables such as social background, geography, sex and age), and variations according to use, "in the sense that each speaker has a range of varieties and choices between them at different times" (Halliday et al, 1964). The focus is on the way language is used in particular situations, such as legalese or motherese, the language of a biology research lab, of a news report or of the bedroom.
Hunt et. al states that register is the level of formality used when speaking or writing.  Victoria Fromkin and Robert Rodman, authors of An Introduction to Language, call it "a stylistic variant of a language appropriate to a particular social setting, also called style" (535).  Dell Hymes   suggests that register, or social variation in speech, is located along such dimensions as the kind of speech event being engaged in (e.g. sales talk as compared to man-to-man talk), the roles of the various parties (e.g. talk to children compared with talk to adults), the topic of the discussion (e.g. children's talk about toys compared with their talk about discipline), and the style of the discussion (e.g. whether informal or formal). From this, we can conclude that the determinants of register include social setting, situation, addressor and addressee, and topic.  In other words, language has to be appropriate to the individuals speaking and hearing it, and it also must match particular occasions and situations.  For example, a sportscaster would not recount highlights from a football game in the legal language used by lawyers and judges in a courtroom, nor would a minister order a hamburger at a fast-food restaurant in the same style he delivers his Sunday morning sermon.  Both the sportscaster and the minister adjust their style of speaking, or register, to fit the setting and to avoid embarrassment, just as most people adjust their language constantly in everyday speech depending upon whom they are speaking with and where they are. 
Linguistic varieties that are linked to occupations, professions or topics have been termed registers. The register of law, for example, is different from the register of medicine, which in turn is different from the language of engineering--and so on. Registers are usually characterized solely by vocabulary differences; either by the use of particular words, or by the use of words in a particular sense. Registers are simply a rather special case of a particular kind of language being produced by the social situation.
Moreover, register refers to a set of specialized vocabulary and preferred (or dispreferred) syntactic and rhetorical devices and structures, used by particular socio-professional groups for special purposes. A register may have a set of derivational devices. It means that a register is a property or characteristic of a language, and not of an individual or a class of speakers. The example is abbreviations, blends, acronyms for informal oral use, and lay use (journalism etc.) 
Halliday and Hasan define register as "a configuration of meanings that are typically associated with a particular situational configuration of field, mode, and tenor. Register is a variety according to use, or the social activity in which you are engaged. Halliday says, "Dialects are saying the same thing in different ways, whereas registers are saying different things." A speaker can use both a dialect and a register at the same time. Imagine a speaker from the USA's "Deep South" engaging in talk in situations where certain registers are required. For example, a speaker from Alabama speaks with her southern pronunciation, while the topic she discusses is the latest programming language of her dot-com firm (register).

Register as a Variety of Language

Each language has its dialects and we can travel across one country and find that each region speaks in quite a different dialect and ... thumbnail 1 summary

Each language has its dialects and we can travel across one country and find that each region speaks in quite a different dialect and that accents differ from one place to another. Then, we can take the example of the English and Spanish languages which have variety depending on the countries where they are spoken. Therefore, if we are in South America we will hear and speak a somehow different variety of Spanish: the accent is totally different from the one in the Peninsula, and in terms of vocabulary we can also find some 'false friends'. The fact that English has been spoken in England for 1,500 years but in Australia for only 200, explains why we have a great wealth of regional dialects in England that is more or less totally lacking in Australia .
It is often possible to tell where an English person comes from to within about fifteen miles or less. In Australia, where there has not been enough time for changes to bring about any regional variation, it is almost impossible to tell where someone comes from at all, although very small differences are now beginning to appear.   
It is unlikely however that there will ever be as much dialectal variation in Australia as there is in England. This is because modern transport and communication conditions are very different from what they were 1,500 or even one-hundred years ago. Even though English is now spoken in many different parts of the world many thousands miles apart, it is very unlikely that English will ever break up into a number of different non-intelligent languages in the same way that Indo-European and Germanic did. German and Norwegian became different languages because the ancestors of the speakers of these two languages moved apart geographically, and were no longer in touch and communicating with one another

Definition of Genre

Nowadays, the term “genre” is familiar for the educational institution because of the reformation of the curriculum. It is one of the ma... thumbnail 1 summary

Nowadays, the term “genre” is familiar for the educational institution because of the reformation of the curriculum. It is one of the materials of English teaching in junior and senior high school.
But actually, the term “genre” is used for many forms of expression in some context. Movie critics refer to certain types of film as a genre. In addition, music fans, talk about pop and rock as a genre.
On the contrary, Mulyani (2007:18) points out that genre is text which are patterned in a distinctive way to achieve particular goal. It is obviously states that the text which is called genre is written in certain arrangement to achieve certain goal. In other word, each text of genre has different arrangement and goal.
As far we know that people achieve certain goal, social goal especially through language. It means that language is used to achieve social goals. In this sense, language function to complain, to entertain, to amuse, to inform, etc among other things.
Moreover, Mulyani states that genre is a way for accounting for the predictable pattern of language (Mulyani, 2007: 19). Considering that quotation, genre is concerned with the overall purpose of a text.
Meanwhile, Gerot and Wignel (1994:15) state that
So genres are culture specific, and have associated with particular purpose, particular stages, and particular features. Most people appreciate the fact that Narratives (stories) and procedures (a set of instructions for doing something), for example, differ in purpose and in the way they begin, develop and end.

From the quotation above, genre is always associated with particular purpose, stages, and linguistic features. The particular stages are distinctive beginnings, middles, and ends.
In secondary education genres do not occur in isolation. Different curriculum areas employ particular selections and patterns of genres. They do this because they are trying to achieve different things. 
In summary, genre in educational institution can be defined as different text which has different goal or purpose, stages, and linguistics features. This becomes the main material of teaching English in high school in Indonesia nowadays.