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Sunday, October 23, 2011

The Importance of Speaking

The Importance of Speaking 


Speaking is the vital skill for human being. It is very important for people to communicate in society. Unfortunately, Speaking is in many ways an undervalued skill. The reason of being that is because almost the people in the world are able to speak (DEPDIKBUD Jateng : Matrei Pelatihan Peningkatan Kemampuan Guru Bahasa Inggris. 2002). Speaking is, however, a skill which deserves attention every bit as much as literary skill. This is true because people who learn English as foreign or second language often need to be able to speak with confidence in order to carry out many of their transactions. There are some reasons to cover the importance of speaking especially for the non-native language student.
Louma (2003 : 14) points out that teaching and testing experts often talk about speaking as a technical term to refer to one of the various skills that language learners should developed and have. More over, she explains that this type of speaking tends to be seen as something that individuals do. It is legitimate and for educational purpose useful to see speaking in this way too because it is true that individuals speak and an important part of language use in personal. Nevertheless, it is also important to remember that speaking forms a part of the shared social activity of talking.
In typical spoken interaction, two or more people talk each other about things that they think mutually interesting and relevant in the situation. (www.sil.org/speaking) Their aims can be pass the time, amuse each other, share opinion or get something done, or they can aim to do several of these and other things at once.  The point in their interaction is that they do these things together. Each participant is both a speaker and a listener construct the event together and shares the right to influence the outcomes.
Bruumfit (1978 : 15) points out that people speak to communicate each other in many transactions.  Although all skill are equally important, so speaking skill as the people have to communicate with other people in person at their job and in their normal life. More than transactions in the society use speaking skill or spoken language. People are speaking in every daily conversation.
With the globalization, it’s important to speak English to communicate internationally whether on a cultural or commercial level (www.englishclub.com/speaking). The opening of borders in Europe also opens up numerous career and life opportunities. On a personal level, language is main vehicle for transmission of cultures; learning opens a window onto the richness and cultural diversity of the world. 
In addition, speaking a certain language, especially English is needed for many people who leaving a home and moving to a new place (www.englishclub.com/speaking)  All of the issue in finding a job, making friends, etc are influenced by the ability to communicate within the community. A number of studies have consistently demonstrated that those who have an advanced knowledge of speaking are much more likely to advance their careers.
Moreover, speaking certain language helps one to have a better position in the society (www.englishclub.com/speaking). A bilingual skill enables one to communicate with more and more people. Many times people are not able to communicate just because they do not know a common language to speak. Speaking to person in his own mother tongue, would make him very friendly. In www.tefl-online.com it is stated that obviously people like speaking in their own mother tongue. Speaking certain language fluently makes someone interact well with other in job and education, know and understand what people said.
In the field of organization, some organizations exist in order to communicate. Most have another purpose such as to sell a product or services, to supply a social need, to implement plans and policies (www.englishclub.com/speaking). Yet, to do those things, organization spend and enormous amount of time energy and money communicating. People in organization communicate in many ways such as face to face in two person discussion, in informal group in meeting, etc.
Pincas ( 1978: 69) states that good speaking will enforce the quality of communication, discussion or decision to meet the achievement and goals. This is true since speaking is a very important attribute in communication.

Speaking

Speaking

 
As stated in (www.beeworkshop.com/language), speech, language and communication are the indispensable tools that help people to communicate, distribute and share thoughts, suggestions, ideas and emotions. Languages and dialects are a set of well-defined rules and clauses shared by people, who like to communicate with others (www.brainyquatoes.com). This tool helps us to exchange thoughts, ideas, and emotions with one another. 
To begin with, it is important to understand the term speaking before go to the next explanations. There are some definitions about speaking which is proposed by some experts. These have brought the assumption that speaking is the core in learning English.
Broughton (1978 : 7) explained that Language is an integral part of learning and plays a key role in classroom teaching and learning. Speaking is merely used as a tool to support and guide reading and writing.
Speaking refers to uttering speech, used for conveying speech. Speaking also mean delivering an address to a public audience (www.fardictionary.com)
Speaking is the action illustrating languages (www.englishclub.com). It is the action of digesting feeling. Speaking is the action of communication between one person to another person or another group of people with particular languages, accent and characteristic system of communicating. More over, it is stated that speaking is a very powerful tool for communication in this world. Speaking is the symbol of understanding between people of different personalities and groups (www.englishclub.com).
Martin (1991: 398) states that speaking is saying or talking things, to express thought, idea, feeling, etc using certain language. It means that Speaking is the action of communication between one person to another person or another group of people with particular languages.
In lined with martin, Flavel (1978: 30) points out that speaking means the process of communication in which the speaker adjusts the way he speak according the situation using certain ways of talking which is appropriate to communicate.
Speak is the act of using the mouth to verbalize expressions in order to convey information, an opinion, a feeling, directions or a thought. It is part of the act of communication. Speaking is the act of using speech in conveying information, expression, giving direction or sharing thought and feelings (www.speechmastery.com) 
From the explanation above, it can be concluded that speaking is the action illustrating thought, suggestions, emotions and ideas.

Wednesday, October 19, 2011

The Difficulties in Using WH questions For Students of MTs Zumrotul Wildan Ngabul Tahunan Jepara (Contrastive Analysis of English and Indonesian Version)

The Difficulties in Using WH questions For Students of MTs Zumrotul Wildan Ngabul Tahunan Jepara (Contrastive Analysis of English and Indonesian Version)

The background of this research is based on the phenomena english eh question use. English wh question or wh word has significance difference with Indonesian wh question. These cause many students get difficulties in using wh question. The interference in using an L2 is mainly caused by the differences between the L1 and the L2, Which comprise the differences in phonological and grammatical systems as well as the lexical and cultural systems.
The problem of this research can be stated as follows :
1.      To what extend of difficulties for students of   MTS ZUMROTUL WILDAN NGABUL TAHUNAN JEPARA in using WH questions in English version ?
2.      How those difficulties that the students of MTS ZUMROTUL WILDAN NGABUL TAHUNAN JEPARA have been analyzed by contrastive approach between English and Indonesian version?
The objective of this research is (1) To find out the difficulties faced by the students of MTS ZUMROTUL WILDAN NGABUL TAHUNAN JEPARA in using WH questions in English version, (2) To analyze the difficulties that the students of MTS ZUMROTUL WILDAN NGABUL TAHUNAN JEPARA between English and Indonesian WH questions by contrastive approach.
The research was conducted at MTS ZUMROTUL WILDAN NGABUL TAHUNAN JEPARA in the academi year 2008/2009. The subject of this research was the first year students MTs Zumrotul Wildan Ngabul Tahunan Jepara in the academic year 2008/2009. The number of the subject was thirty. The instruments which are used to collect the data are questionnaire, interview and observation. 
The result of this study show the difficulties in using WH Question. They are: Difficulty constructing WH Question using WH-Words such as what, where, how, etc. Confusion about the meaning and the function of WH-Words. Difficulty constructing WH Question in the form of past, present and future. Difficulty constructing WH Question as a subject or object. Difficulty constructing WH Question which need/doesn’t need auxiliary verb/to be. In addition the result of this study show the difference of English and Indonesian WH question. They are: Split of meaning (English WH Question which have more than one equivalence meaning with the indonesin WH Question). Coalescence in meaning (Indonesian WH Questions that has more than one similarities meaning with English WH Question). Split in Sentence Structure

The Strategy Used in Increasing Reading Comprehension of the Students of English Education Faculty Muria Kudus University in the Academic Year 2008/2009

The Strategy Used in Increasing Reading Comprehension of the Students of English Education Faculty Muria Kudus University in the Academic Year 2008/2009


In Indonesia, English is the foreign language which is learned by students of Elementary School up to the University. Muria Kudus University is one of university which has English Department. The students learn how to become good English teachers who have good skills in language. They have to master English language skills as speaking, listening, writing, and reading.
Reading is very important skill. Understanding reading text well will enlarge someone knowledge. For that reason, all the students of EED UMK take Reading subject since they are in the first semester. Regarding the result of Reading I, Reading IV, and Extensive Reading II on the even semester in academic year 2007/2008 showed that about 80% of students who take those classes got satisfying result, it is assumed that the teaching learning of Reading subjects are success. It is assumed that they apply several strategies of reading to increase their reading comprehension. For that reason, the writer is encouraged to analyze such the phenomenon.
This analysis study is carried out to: (i) To know the strategies used in increasing reading comprehension of the students of EED UMK in the academic year 2008/2009 (ii) To identify the difficulties faced by the students of EED UMK in the academic year 2008/2009 in increasing their reading comprehension
This research uses descriptive qualitative methodology. Since this research gives description strategies used and the difficulties in increasing reading comprehension. The population in this study is all the students of EED UMK who took Reading II in the academic year 2008/2009. The instrument that is used in this test is Questionnaire. The result of the data analysis is described in order to provide description of the strategies used in increasing reading comprehension of the students of EED UMK in the academic year 2008/2009 and their difficulties. .
From analyzing the data of this research, it was obtained that; (i) There are 13 strategies which is used by the students of EED UMK in increasing their reading comprehension (ii) There are three major difficulties faced by the students of EED UMK.

Monday, October 17, 2011

The Mastery of Elliptical Sentences with So, Too, Either and Neither by Using PGR Technique to the Ninth Year Students of MTs Raudlotut Tholibin Sidomulyo Jekulo Kudus in the Academic Year 2007/2008

The Mastery of Elliptical Sentences with So, Too, Either and Neither by Using PGR Technique to the Ninth Year Students of MTs Raudlotut Tholibin Sidomulyo Jekulo Kudus in the Academic Year 2007/2008


English is the most widespread language in the world. In some countries, English is the sole or dominant language. Considering the importance of English above, the government of Indonesia has chosen it to be taught at schools as the first foreign language. It is taught as a compulsory subject at the junior high school and senior high school.
The teaching of English as a foreign language for Indonesian students is different from the teaching of Indonesian as a mother tongue. It is because students have had special concept of their native language that is different from English. As far as we know that, in learning English, students will obviously find many kinds of problems involved in the sentence structure. These problems are caused mostly by the different elements between Indonesian and English as the target language being learnt. It may be caused by the teaching technique which is used by the teacher to present the material is not appropriate. For that reason, the writer is encouraged to analyze such the phenomenon.
This analysis study is carried out to: (i) To know the teaching of Elliptical Sentence of the Ninth grade Students of MTs Raudlotut Tholibin Sidomulyo Jekulo Kudus in the academic year 2007/2008 who are taught by using PGR. (ii) To know the teaching of Elliptical Sentence of the Ninth grade Students of MTs Raudlotut Tholibin Sidomulyo Jekulo Kudus in the academic year 2007/2008 who are taught by using Lecturing technique.(iii) To know whether there is a significant difference between the teaching of Elliptical Sentence of the Ninth grade Students of MTs Raudlotut Tholibin Sidomulyo Jekulo Kudus in the academic year 2007/2008 who are taught by using PGR and those who are taught by using Lecturing technique
This research uses the quantitative approach. In addition, this research uses classroom research in trying to obtain the important and sufficient data. The population in this study is all the ninth year students of MTs Raudlotut Tholibin Sidomulyo Jekulo.
From analyzing the data of this research, it was obtained that; (i) The teaching of Elliptical Sentence of the Ninth grade Students of MTs Raudlotut Tholibin Sidomulyo Jekulo Kudus in the academic year 2007/2008 by using PGR Technique gives more significant effect. It is based on the result of mean calculation of the experimental class is 80,45. (ii) The teaching of Elliptical Sentence by the Ninth grade Students of MTs Raudlotut Tholibin Sidomulyo Jekulo Kudus in the academic year 2007/2008 by using Lecturing technique gives less significant effect. It is based on the result that the mean calculation of the control class is 60,95, (iii) The PGR technique is significantly more effective than lecturing for teaching Elliptical Sentence with so, too, either and neither. It is based on the result of t-test that the to value is 10 and tt (df = 78) 5% =1,99. so that Ho is rejected and Ha is accepted. This statement could be written in statistical form as to > tt

An Analysis of Moral and Education Value of the Main Character of “Forrest Gump” Film as Life and Learning Motivation.

An Analysis of Moral and Education Value of the Main Character of “Forrest Gump” Film as Life and Learning Motivation.

 
Teaching English has a purpose that to educate the participant or the student can master four basic skills. They are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. There are many ways which can be done to increase their ability in those four skills. For example: to increase ability in listening and speaking, they can watch film, listen to music, and radio broadcast, of course in English.
In this globalization era, a film does not only give pleasure but also give values that human need to motivate him/her. Film as one of literature is a social institution, using as its medium language so that literature cannot be separated from human life. A film containing dialogues and actions is sometimes based on a novel or a story. Beside the function of film as entertaining program, it also gives another benefit that the watchers can get from it that is the moral and education values. Film sometimes contains of philosophical attitudes which light human life. Film can also give the watchers life and learning motivation. Those motivations give people spirit to continue their life much better. Through the motivation giving, the watchers are hoped to be motivated and learn more to the goodness of course. For that reason, the writer is encouraged to analyze such the phenomenon.
This analysis study is carried out to: (i) to know the characteristic of the main character of “Forrest Gump” film. (ii) To know the moral and education values of the main character of “Forrest Gump” film which can be used as life and learning motivation.
This research uses the qualitative approach. In addition, this research uses descriptive method. The writer attempts to describe the characteristic of the main character and the moral and education values of the main character of “Forrest Gump” film which can be used as life and learning motivation. The data of this study is the dialogues representing the characteristic of the main character and the moral and education values of the main character of “Forrest Gump” film which can be used as life and learning motivation. Meanwhile, transcript of dialogue in “Forrest Gump” film is the data source. 
From analyzing the data of this research, it was obtained that; (i) There are 8 characteristic of the main character of “Forrest Gump” film. (ii) There are 3 moral and education values of the main character of “Forrest Gump” film which can be used as life and learning motivation.

The Mastery of Using English Conjunction in Compound and Complex Sentences of the Eleventh Year Students of SMK Taman Siswa in the Academic Year 2007/2008

The Mastery of Using English Conjunction in Compound and Complex Sentences of the Eleventh Year Students of SMK Taman Siswa in the Academic Year 2007/2008


Language as a means of communication plays an important role in our life. English is an important language for us because it is used in many countries throughout the world, including Indonesia. As we know that, English is also used as a medium in studying, exploiting, and also developing technology and science. As far as we know that, In Indonesia, English has been taught in Elementary School, Junior High School, Senior High School, and the first grade in University. In English teaching, students sometime found difficulties in using English Conjunction in Compound and Complex Sentences. Many of them have difficulties to understand the construction of the English Conjunction in Compound and Complex Sentences. The writer is encouraged to analyze such the phenomenon. The writer would like to know The Mastery of Using English Conjunction in Compound and Complex Sentences of the Eleventh Year Students of SMK Taman Siswa in the Academic Year 2007/2008.
This research is carried out to: (i) to know the mastery of using English coordinate conjunction in compound sentences of the eleventh year students of SMK Taman Siswa in the academic year 2007/2008 (ii) To know the mastery of using English sub ordinate conjunction in complex sentences of the eleventh year students of SMK Taman Siswa in the academic year 2007/2008.
This research uses the qualitative approach. In addition, this research uses descriptive method. Since this research gives description about the The Mastery of Using English Conjunction in Compound and Complex Sentences of the Eleventh Year Students of SMK Taman Siswa in the Academic Year 2007/2008. The population in this study is all the Eleventh Year Students of SMK Taman Siswa in the Academic Year 2007/2008. The instrument that is used in this test is test. The result of the data analysis is described in order to provide description of The Mastery of Using English Conjunction in Compound and Complex Sentences of the Eleventh Year Students of SMK Taman Siswa in the Academic Year 2007/2008.
From analyzing the data of this research, it was obtained that; (i) The mastery in constructing compound sentence using coordinate conjunction of the eleventh year students of SMK Taman Siswa Kudus in the academic year 2007/2008 is sufficient with the mean of the student’s score is 71.08. (ii) The mastery in constructing complex sentence using subordinate conjunction of the eleventh year students of SMK Taman Siswa Kudus in the academic year 2007/2008 is sufficient with the mean of the student’s score is 73.43.

The Ability of Writing Procedure Text of the Ninth Grade students of MTs Tsamrotul Huda in the Academic year 2007/2008


The Ability of Writing Procedure Text of the Ninth Grade students of MTs Tsamrotul Huda in the Academic year 2007/2008

Language as a means of communication plays an important role in our life. English is an important language for us because it is used in many countries throughout the world, including Indonesia. As we know that, English is also used as a medium in studying, exploiting, and also developing technology and science. As far as we know that, In Indonesia, English has been taught in Elementary School, Junior High School, Senior High School, and the first grade in University. In English teaching, students sometime found procedures text. Many of them have difficulties to understand the procedures. The writer is encouraged to analyze such the phenomenon. The writer would like to know the student’s ability in writing procedural text.
This research is carried out to: (i) to know the ability in arranging the steps of procedure text of ninth grade students of MTs Tsamrotul Huda Dawe. (ii) To know the ability in writing procedure text based on the picture of ninth grade students of MTs Tsamrotul Huda Dawe. (iii) To know the ability in writing procedure text based on the theme of ninth grade students of MTs Tsamrotul Huda Dawe.
This research uses the qualitative approach. In addition, this research uses descriptive method. Since this research gives description about the ability of writing procedure text of ninth grade students of MTs. Tsamrotul Huda Dawe in the academic year 2007/2008. The population in this study is all the ninth year students of MTs Tsamrotul Huda Dawe. The instrument that is used in this test is writing test. the result of the data analysis is described in order to provide description of ability of writing procedure text of ninth grade students of MTs. Tsamrotul Huda Dawe. 
From analyzing the data of this research, it was obtained that; (i) The ability in arranging the steps of procedural text of ninth grade students of MTs Tsamrotul Huda Dawe Kudus in the academic year 2007/2008 is good or in the level of achievement above average. It is based on the result that the mean is 81,25. (ii) The ability in writing procedural text based on the picture of ninth grade students of MTs Tsamrotul Huda Dawe Kudus in the academic year 2007/2008 is good or in the level of achievement above average. It is based on the result that the mean is 81,45. (iii) The ability in writing procedural text based on the theme of ninth grade students of MTs Tsamrotul Huda Dawe in the academic year 2007/2008 is good or in the level of achievement above average. It is based on the result that the mean is 78,77.

Teaching English at Junior High School

First of all, it is important to understand the word “teaching”. It is true since the term teaching has many definitions. Meanwhile, Martin (1998: 425) states that teaching refers to give instructions, knowledge, and skill to somebody. It means that teaching is a process of giving knowledge or skill by some instructions. In lined with Martin, Brown (2000: 7) points out that teaching is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the learners to earn, setting the conditions for learning. It means that the process of teaching involves conveying science or knowledge from teacher to learner. Besides, this process impact attitudes, values, knowledge, and skill from educated person to others. In addition, it guides someone to learn. 
From the definition above, a conclusion can be drawn that teaching English refers to guiding and facilitating the learners in learning English, enabling the learners to learn English, setting the conditions for learning English.
In accordance with the institution of Junior High School, English is an obligatory lesson in teaching and learning process in each semester. The reason of being that is English plays important role as an international language in the world. In addition, teaching English in Junior High School is expected to be able to prepare the student for continuing their study to the next level of academic.